Dur-Sharrukin, Sargon II’s new capital and Nebuchadnezzar’s rebuilding of Babylon was a refreshment for urban order with well made streets and city gates.

Sargon II’s Dur-Sharrukin

Dur-Sharrukin, “The City of Sargon”, now called Khorsabad is on north Mosul in northern Iraq. For the first time outside of Egypt, Dur-Sharrukin was designed as a city with an othogonal plan but the scale and monumentality was even bigger. Greater amount of the city’s gates correlated to the gates on the opposite of the city, entailing a grid of straight streets inside the walls.

The palace of Sargon II’s was constructed with its temples and ziggurat on the back of the northern walls. The citadel was heightened above the level of the rest of the city. Sargon’s palace was long and narrow constructed with mud bricks and no columns. Also, a drainage system was inserted under the headquarters which was an technical improvement.


New Babylon

Present-day Babylon lies on the west of Baghdad. Babylon is called “Gate of God” in Akkadian language. An idea for the New Babylon was erected in order to enhance the city’s theological role by having great temples and the ceremonial routes. The orthogonal methods of Dur-Sharrukin were proceeded however an increase in scale of the area was in relevant. Babylon’s new ziggurat, known as the Entemenanki, “the house that is the foundation of heaven and earth”, inspired the biblical story of the Tower of Babel. In addition, Ishtar Gate was reconstructed due to the enlargement of the palace to the north.



The Achaemenid  Persia established the first architecttural initiative with a few casually placed buildings in a park surrounded by a defensive wall. The Tomb of Cyrus, Mazda Fire Temple and a gate-house were in the city’s borderline. Cyrus’s palace and audience hall was also lifted up like Sargon’s palace. The main room of the palace was a hypostyle hall which was common in Egypt but unfamiliar in the Mesopotamian region.

A new city nearby Persepoliswas erected which included a grand palace with mud-brick fortifications dominating the city with it’s high level. Entry to the palace was provided with an extraordinary set of stairs. The Gateway of All Nations or theGate of Xersex stood up with four columns was at the top of the these stairs. Also, these stairs led to Darius’s Apadana, a hypostyle hall with a grid of thirty-six tall wooden columns painted with black and white geometric patterns filling the great square room, gave a sense of nonhierarchical order with its a great number of columns.